SAE’s Levels of driving automation

The following tables summarizes SAE International’s levels of driving automation for on-road vehicles. Information Report J3016 provides full definitions for these levels and for the italicized terms used therein. The levels are descriptive rather than normative and technical rather than legal. Elements indicate minimum rather than maximum capabilities for each level. “System” refers to the driver assistance system, combination of driver assistance systems, or automated driving system, as appropriate. The tables also shows how SAE’s levels definitively correspond to those developed by the Germany Federal Highway Research Institute (BASt) and approximately correspond to those described by the US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) in its “Preliminary Statement of Policy Concerning Automated Vehicles” of May 30, 2013.

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Hierarchical model of driving tasks

The generalized problem solving task of the driver-qua road user-may be further divided in three levels of skills and control: strategical (planning), tactical (maneuvering), and operational (control) respectively (Michon, 1971, 1979; Janssen, 1979). Continue reading