SAE’s Levels of driving automation

The following tables summarizes SAE International’s levels of driving automation for on-road vehicles. Information Report J3016 provides full definitions for these levels and for the italicized terms used therein. The levels are descriptive rather than normative and technical rather than legal. Elements indicate minimum rather than maximum capabilities for each level. “System” refers to the driver assistance system, combination of driver assistance systems, or automated driving system, as appropriate. The tables also shows how SAE’s levels definitively correspond to those developed by the Germany Federal Highway Research Institute (BASt) and approximately correspond to those described by the US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) in its “Preliminary Statement of Policy Concerning Automated Vehicles” of May 30, 2013.

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Hierarchical model of driving tasks

The generalized problem solving task of the driver-qua road user-may be further divided in three levels of skills and control: strategical (planning), tactical (maneuvering), and operational (control) respectively (Michon, 1971, 1979; Janssen, 1979). Continue reading

Interface design

I see user interfaces as handles that allow users to have control over and gain information from the designs they are attached to. Interfaces exist of elements that together should make the interface understandable, consistent, intuitive and easy in use. Eventually this will lead to task completion, more efficiency and more satisfaction. I believe that order to design interfaces I have to keep several requirements in mind. Continue reading


I want to investigate “How do interfaces affect the sense of control drivers have?” by designing several concepts of scenarios in which I explain a several interfaces. These scenarios then will be proposed to users and experts through interviews and (if beneficial) questionnaires. From the data that is received new concepts will be generated and proposed. After several iterations, this will result in data that will bring me closer to the answer on the design research question. Continue reading