The generalized problem solving task of the driver-qua road user-may be further divided in three levels of skills and control: strategical (planning), tactical (maneuvering), and operational (control) respectively (Michon, 1971, 1979; Janssen, 1979).
The strategical level defines the general planning stage of a trip, including the determination of trip goals, route, and modal choice, plus an evaluation of the costs and risks involved. Plans derive further from general considerations about transport and mobility, and also from concomitant factors such as aesthetic satisfaction and comfort.
At the tactical level drivers exercise maneuver control allowing them to negotiate the directly prevailing circumstances. Although largely constrained by the exigencies of the actual situation, maneuvers such as obstacle avoidance, gap acceptance, turning, and overtaking, must meet the criteria derived from the general goals set at the strategical level. Conversely these goals may occasionally be adapted to fit the outcome of certain maneuvers. A comprehensive model of driver behavior should not only take the various levels into account, but should also provide an information flow control structure that enables control to switch from one level to the other at the appropriate points in time.
L. Evans & R. C. Schwing (Eds.). Human behavior and traffic safety
(pp. 485-520). New York: Plenum Press,1985